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植被缓冲带在水源地面源污染治理中的作用

王荣嘉 张建锋

王荣嘉, 张建锋. 植被缓冲带在水源地面源污染治理中的作用[J]. 土壤通报, 2022, 53(4): 981 − 988 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021062302
引用本文: 王荣嘉, 张建锋. 植被缓冲带在水源地面源污染治理中的作用[J]. 土壤通报, 2022, 53(4): 981 − 988 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021062302
WANG Rong-jia, ZHANG Jian-feng. Roles of Vegetation Buffer Zones on Non-point Source Pollution Control in Water Source Areas[J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 2022, 53(4): 981 − 988 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021062302
Citation: WANG Rong-jia, ZHANG Jian-feng. Roles of Vegetation Buffer Zones on Non-point Source Pollution Control in Water Source Areas[J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 2022, 53(4): 981 − 988 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021062302

植被缓冲带在水源地面源污染治理中的作用

doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021062302
基金项目: 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项基金项目(CAFYBB2019SY014)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王荣嘉(1994−),男,山东淄博人,博士研究生,主要从事面源污染防治研究,Email: wangrongjia0112@163.com

    通讯作者:

    E-mail: Zhangk126@126.com

  • 中图分类号: S157

Roles of Vegetation Buffer Zones on Non-point Source Pollution Control in Water Source Areas

  • 摘要: 在山地丘陵区遭遇高强度降雨时,常常发生水土流失;水流携带泥沙下泄,过量施入农田的肥料、农药等化学物质随之进入河流、水库、湖泊等地表水和地下水水体,进而造成水体富营养化等面源污染,危害水源地安全。为梳理植被缓冲带能够控制水土流失、阻控污染物移动、解决水源地面源污染问题,明确该项技术措施减少和治理水源地面源污染的机制,为水源地面源污染防治和水环境改善提供参考。在概括介绍植被缓冲带的类型、功能的基础上,对该项技术措施减少和治理水源地面源污染的机制进行讨论。植被缓冲带治理水源地面源污染的机制主要有:①植物在生长过程中自身对氮磷等物质的吸收;②利用植被固结土壤,减少水土流失;③植被覆盖、拦蓄能够延长径流在地面的停留时间而增加水分入渗、减少氮磷等物质随地表径流流失;④植物根系参与土壤中多种物理、化学和生物过程,加速碳、氮、磷等物质的形态转化。针对水源地面源污染特点和植被缓冲带的建设技术及其应用要点,提出相关建议,并对今后该技术的发展进行了展望。
  • 图  1  植被缓冲带地形示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of vegetation buffer topography

    表  1  部分河岸缓冲带污染物去除效果汇总

    Table  1.   Pollutant removal effectiveness of some riparian buffer zones

    作者
    Author
    地区
    Area
    类型
    Type
    污染物去除效果
    Effectiveness
    Jabłońska et al. 2021 [53] 波兰中部地区 湿地 全氮去除率为34-92%,全磷去除率为17-63%
    Zak et al. 2019 [40] 丹麦Fillerup地区 非木本植物植被缓冲带(挺水植物,沉水植物,浮游植物等 对于硝态氮去除效果为30 ± 19%,全氮去除效果为31 ± 16%,全磷的去除效果为44 ± 10%
    Zak et al. 2019 [40] 丹麦Fillerup地区 木本植物植被缓冲带(欧洲桤木) 对于硝态氮去除效果为37 ± 17%,全氮去除效果为38 ± 16%,全磷的去除效果为52 ± 12%。
    Aguiar et al. 2015 [17] 巴西Cará-Cará河 木本 减少99% TN,99% TP
    Aguiar et al. 2015 [17] 巴西Cará-Cará河 灌木 减少66.4% TP,83.9% TN
    Aguiar et al. 2015 [17] 巴西Cará-Cará河 草本 减少61.6% TP,52.9% TN
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  植被缓冲带构建技术

    Table  2.   Vegetation buffer zone construction techniques

    区位
    Location
    树种配置
    Tree species
    技术要点
    Key technique
    远岸区 耐水湿乔木:水杉、池杉、垂柳、枫杨、重阳木、合欢、乌桕、青桐、黄山栾、国槐、臭椿、银杏、落羽杉、女贞、桂花、香樟、雪松、桑葚、朴树。 1. 旱地开沟、整地:在旱地宽阔处因势造形,与河道、湖面垂直方向每15 m开挖一条一级排水沟,沟渠规格上宽60 cm,下宽40 cm,深40 cm;与河道平行方向每6 m开挖一条二级排水沟,沟渠规格上宽30 cm,下宽20 cm,深20 cm。开沟后,在出现的地垄上清理杂草、杂物,平整土地,开挖种植穴、种植穴规格为70 cm × 70 cm × 70 cm。
    2. 苗木要求:①无病虫害,生长健壮苗木;②苗木规格:乔木要求胸径5 cm左右,高度2 m 左右,土球是胸径的6 ~ 8倍。
    3. 造林密度:乔木株行距3 m × 3 m。
    4. 水肥措施:种植后立即浇透定根水,后期管理中除非干旱性灾害气候,一般不人为干预浇水。
    5. 覆盖:定植后在苗木根部用地膜覆盖,地膜用土压实。
    6. 支撑固定:用木棒斜插入土中,用草绳绑紧,使定植苗木不能晃动。
    7. 抚育措施:封闭管理,加强病虫防治、预防涝灾、风灾和护林防火,杜绝其它人为种养行为。
    近岸区 耐水湿灌木:蜡杨梅、木槿、杞柳、夹竹桃、红叶石楠、芦竹、细叶水团花、海桐、小叶女贞、黄杨。 1. 旱地开沟、整地:在旱地宽阔处因势造形,与河道、湖面垂直方向每15 m开挖一条一级排水沟,沟渠规格上宽60 cm,下宽40 cm,深40 cm;与河道平行方向每6 m开挖一条二级排水沟,沟渠规格上宽30 cm,下宽20 cm,深20 cm。开沟后,在出现的地垄上清理杂草、杂物,平整土地,开挖种植穴、种植穴规格为70 cm × 70 cm × 70 cm。
    2. 苗木要求:①无病虫害,生长健壮苗木;②苗木规格:灌木要求高度1 m左右,4分枝,土球是地径的4 ~ 6倍。
    3. 造林密度:株行距1 m × 1 m。
    4. 水肥措施:种植后立即浇透定根水,后期管理中除非干旱性灾害气候,一般不人为干预浇水。
    5. 覆盖:定植后在苗木根部用地膜覆盖,地膜用土压实。
    6. 抚育措施:封闭管理,加强病虫防治、预防涝灾、风灾和护林防火,杜绝其它人为种养行为。
    滨水区 挺水植物:芦苇、菰草、席草、香蒲、莎草、美人蕉等。 1. 植物分株繁殖,穴状采挖,一穴以10分支左右为宜,根埋入淤泥不漂浮;
    2. 种植密度:挺水植物穴距3 m × 3 m,每亩74穴。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-18
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-11
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-17
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-17

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