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西辽河平原区免耕秸秆还田方式对土壤微生物群落组成的影响

萨如拉 杨恒山 高聚林 张瑞富 邰继承 李媛媛 孟繁昊

萨如拉, 杨恒山, 高聚林, 张瑞富, 邰继承, 李媛媛, 孟繁昊. 西辽河平原区免耕秸秆还田方式对土壤微生物群落组成的影响[J]. 土壤通报, 2022, 53(5): 1067 − 1078 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021092701
引用本文: 萨如拉, 杨恒山, 高聚林, 张瑞富, 邰继承, 李媛媛, 孟繁昊. 西辽河平原区免耕秸秆还田方式对土壤微生物群落组成的影响[J]. 土壤通报, 2022, 53(5): 1067 − 1078 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021092701
SA Ru-la, YANG Heng-shan, GAO Ju-lin, ZHANG Rui-fu, TAI Ji-cheng, LI Yuan-yuan, MENG Fan-hao. Effects of No Tillage Straw Returning on Soil Microbial Community Composition in the West Liaohe Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 2022, 53(5): 1067 − 1078 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021092701
Citation: SA Ru-la, YANG Heng-shan, GAO Ju-lin, ZHANG Rui-fu, TAI Ji-cheng, LI Yuan-yuan, MENG Fan-hao. Effects of No Tillage Straw Returning on Soil Microbial Community Composition in the West Liaohe Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 2022, 53(5): 1067 − 1078 doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021092701

西辽河平原区免耕秸秆还田方式对土壤微生物群落组成的影响

doi: 10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2021092701
基金项目: 国家自然基金项目(31960383)、国家重点研究开发项目(2017YFD0300805)、内蒙古自治区自然科学基金项目(2018LH03007,2019MS03073)和内蒙古自治区高等学校科学技术研究项目(NJZY21444)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    萨如拉(1982−),女,内蒙古通辽市人,博士,副教授,主要从事玉米高产栽培研究。E-mail: 625968785@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: S342.1

Effects of No Tillage Straw Returning on Soil Microbial Community Composition in the West Liaohe Plain

  • 摘要:   目的  针对干旱半干旱西辽河平原区农田耕层存在的土壤质量问题,揭示不同免耕秸秆还田方式对土壤微生物类群分布特征的影响。  方法  设置浅旋秸秆不还田农户模式(CK)、免耕秸秆秋覆还田(MG)、免耕秸秆秋覆春二次粉碎还田(ME)、免耕秸秆秋覆春配施秸秆腐熟剂还田(MF)、免耕秸秆秋覆春二次粉碎配施秸秆腐熟剂还田(EF)5个处理,用田间小区试验的方法,研究免耕和不同秸秆还田方式对土壤微生物群落组成的影响。  结果  0 ~ 15 cm土层中4种免耕秸秆还田方式降低细菌操作分类单元数;15 ~ 30 cm土层中MF和EF细菌操作分类单元数较高,MF中增加节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)、芽单胞菌属(Gemmatimonas)和假平胞菌属(Sphingomonas)相对丰度,EF中增加Haliangium、溶杆菌属(Lysobacter)、Subgroup_10、Alistipes和拟杆菌属(Bacteroides)相对丰度;30 ~ 45 cm土层中4种秸秆还田方式均增加细菌操作分类单元数,增加了节杆菌属、拟杆菌属、Gaiella、硝化螺旋菌属 (Nitrospira) 相对丰度,但减少了AlistipesEscherichia-shigella相对丰度。4种免耕秸秆还田方式降低0 ~ 15 cm土层真菌操作分类单元数,但增加15 ~ 45 cm土层真菌操作分类单元数;4种免耕秸秆还田方式降低了外瓶霉属(Exophiala)和被孢霉属(Mortierella)相对丰度,秸秆还田中新出现丝状真菌柄孢霉(Podospora)、角菌根菌属(Ceratobasidium)、Archaeorhizomyces,配施秸秆腐熟剂的2个处理新出现了粉褶蕈属(Entoloma),并增加了裂壳菌属(Schizothecium)的相对丰度。试验区能对生长环境产生较大影响的细菌比真菌多。从细菌多样性看,免耕秸秆秋覆春配施秸秆腐熟剂还田后增加了产黄菌属(Flavobacterium、Ruminococcus__gnavus_groupMethylophilaceae相对丰度,ME和EF对产黄菌属和Methylophilaceae相对丰度增加幅度较大;从真菌多样性看,CK中MrakiaMyceliophthora物种相对丰度较高,MF中PeristomialisPowellomyces 物种相对丰度较高,EF中CercophoraScytalidium物种相对丰度较高。  结论  免耕秸秆秋覆春二次粉碎还田及其施用腐熟剂措施可增加降解纤维素功能菌及菌根真菌多样性及相对丰度,对于西辽河平原雨养区春玉米田土壤微生物多样性、丰富度的提升具有积极作用。
  • 图  1  玉米生育期内月降水量

    历年平均降水量为1960 ~ 2020年降水量平均值。

    Figure  1.  Annual precipitation during maize growing period

    图  2  不同处理土壤中细菌和真菌OTU数

    Figure  2.  OTU number of bacteria and fungi in different treatments

    图  3  土壤细菌门和纲水平上的分类组成及分布

    Figure  3.  Taxonomic composition and distribution of soil bacteria on the phylum and class levels in different treatments

    图  4  土壤细菌属水平上的分类组成及分布

    Figure  4.  Taxonomic composition and distribution of soil bacteria on the genus levels in different treatments

    图  5  土壤真菌门和纲水平上的分类组成及分布

    Figure  5.  Taxonomic composition and distribution of soil fungi on the phylum and genus levels in different treatments

    图  6  土壤样品真菌相对丰度热图

    Figure  6.  Heat map of fungi relative abundance in different treatments

    图  7  不同处理土壤细菌群落差异分析

    Figure  7.  Community differences of soil bacteria in treatments

    图  8  不同组试样土壤细菌和真菌LDA值分布

    Figure  8.  LDA distribution of soil bacteria and fungi in different treatments

    图  9  不同组试样土壤细菌和真菌系统发育树

    Figure  9.  Cladogram of soil bacteria and fungi in different treatments

    表  1  试验设计与方法

    Table  1.   Experimental design and method

    编号
    Code
    处理
    Treatment
    耕作方式
    Farming pattern
    CK 浅旋秸秆不还田农户模式 秋收秸秆移出田块-翌年春季旋耕整地-施肥、播种-中耕、除草-追施氮肥-虫害防
    控-立秆直收籽粒
    MG 免耕秸秆秋覆还田 适时机收-秸秆覆盖过
    冬-免耕施肥、播种-中耕、除草-追施氮肥-虫害防控-立秆直收籽粒
    MF 免耕秸秆秋覆春配施秸秆腐熟剂还田 适时机收-秸秆覆盖过冬-春季配施秸秆腐熟剂-免耕施肥、播种-中耕、除草-追施氮肥-虫害防控-立秆直收籽粒
    ME 免耕秸秆秋覆春二次粉碎还田 适时机收-秸秆覆盖过冬-春季秸秆二次粉碎,秸秆长度 ≤ 10 cm,且要求均匀抛撒在地表-免耕施肥、播种-中耕、除草-追施氮肥-虫害防控-立秆直收籽粒
    EF 免耕秸秆秋覆春二次粉碎配施秸秆腐熟剂还田 适时机收-秸秆覆盖过冬-春季秸秆二次粉碎配施腐熟剂,秸秆长度 ≤ 10 cm,且要求均匀抛撒在地表-免耕施肥、播种-中耕、除草-追施氮肥-虫害防控-立秆直收籽粒
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  每个处理样本的分组和编号

    Table  2.   The groups and codes of soil samples in treatments

    土层深度
    Soil depth
    CKMGMFMEEF
    0 ~ 15 cm CK1 MG1 MF1 ME1 EF1
    15 ~ 30 cm CK2 MG2 MF2 ME2 EF2
    30 ~ 45 cm CK3 MG3 MF3 ME3 EF3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  各处理对春玉米产量构成因素的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of different treatments on yield components of spring maize

    处理
    Treatment
    穗长 (cm)
    Ear length
    秃尖长 (cm)
    Bare tip length
    穗粒数 (粒)
    Grains/ ear
    千粒重 (g)
    1000-Grain Weight
    产量 (kg hm−2)
    Yield
    CK 13.47 Bb 1.41 Aa 423.67 Ab 332.61 Bb 10474.51 Aa
    MG 14.10 Aa 1.36 Aa 447.67 Aa 338.85 Bb 10989.72 Aa
    ME 13.86 ABab 1.35 Aa 424.33 Ab 357.68 Aa 11034.61 Aa
    MF 13.96 ABa 1.29 Aa 437.33 Aab 338.62 Bb 10871.18 Aa
    EF 13.91 ABab 1.25 Aa 436.33 Aab 354.56 Aa 11073.40 Aa
       注:不同大小写字母分别表示处理间差异达到0.01显著水平和0.05显著水平。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-27
  • 录用日期:  2022-04-19
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-24
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-30

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